In a single-center study, all 171 neonates with a failed hearing screen (out of nearly 11,000 infants screened) were tested for congenital CMV infection with a salivary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Such testing was mandated by state law. If the salivary PCR was positive, a confirmatory urine PCR assay was performed. Two of the 171 infants had a confirmed CMV infection and one additional infant had a false positive salivary PCR. Overall, of all the infants who failed a hearing screen, 85% had normal hearing on audiology follow-up.