A multicenter randomized trial compared the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) to nasal CPAP. Subjects were infants with a birthweight less than 1000 grams, gestation less than 30 weeks, and postnatal age of 28 days or less. Two categories of infants requiring non-invasive respiratory support (i.e. no endotracheal tube) were included: infants within the first 7 days of life who had never been intubated or had received less than 24 hours of intubated respiratory support; and infants within the first 28 days of life intubated for 24 hours or more and were candidates for extubation. The rate of survival to 36 weeks without bronchopulmonary dysplasia was not different between the two groups – 38% with NIPPV, and 37% with nasal CPAP.