The acoustic environment of the NICU can be very stressful to neonates, especially preterm infants. However reduction of noise alone is not sufficient. Provision of the right acoustic and auditory environment is required. Music therapy offers considerable promise to improve the neurological outcomes of preterm infants. This can be provided by infant-directed singing, either by the mother or by a trained music therapist.The infant, parent and the dyad can be seen as a dynamic system with potential benefits for both infants and parents.