A prospective study of 48 babies born before 28 weeks gestation assessed the association of maternal-child interactions with neurodevelopmental outcome. The maternal-infant interaction was assessed when the infants were two years of corrected age, in a structured play situation using the Erickson Scales and Mutually Responsive Orientation Scales. A higher quality of dyadic relationship and maternal sensitivity, responsiveness, and supportiveness were associated with positive neurocognitive outcome as measured with the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS) and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development – Third Edition (BSID-III). This association remained after adjusting for mother’s educational level. These findings emphasize the importance of the quality of mother-child interaction after extremely preterm birth for neurocognitive development.