The Total Body Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy (TOBY) randomized trial previously showed beneficial effects with therapeutic hypothermia at 18 months follow-up. The infants in these trial were followed until 6 – 7 years of age. Infants undergoing hypothermia treatment were found to have higher rates of intact survival (survival with an IQ score of 85 or more) than control infants (52% vs 39%). Around 30% of the infants in each group died. Among survivors, infants who were cooled had lower rates of neurodevelopmental impairment than controls.