Is resuscitation of preterm infants with room air risky?

In a retrospective cohort study of infants less than 27 weeks gestation from 17 Canadian NICUs, when compared to infants resuscitated with 100% oxygen, infants resuscitated with less than 100% (typically 21-40%) oxygen had a higher rate of severe neurologic injury or death (adjusted odds ratio 1.3 to 1.4).

Outcomes of preterm infants following introduction of room air resuscitation. Rabi et al, 2015.