A single-center study reported the results two years before and two years after routine MRSA surveillance was introduced. The rate of MRSA blood-stream infection was 3.8 per 1000 neonates in the pre-surveillance period and 5.3 per 1000 neonates during the surveillance period. However during the surveillance period all the MRSA blood-stream infections occurred in MRSA-colonized infants while none occurred in the non-colonized infants. Of the infants colonized with MRSA, 30% developed blood-stream infection. Overall, 28 neonates had to be screened to identify one infant colonized with MRSA, with a direct cost of nearly $6000 per detected infant.