A randomized blinded multicenter trial studied the effects of prophylactic fluconazole in babies less than 750 grams birth weight. Fluconazole (6 mg/kg/day) was given twice a week for 42 days. Control infants received placebo. The composite primary end point of death or invasive candidiasis was not significantly different in the two groups (16% with fluconazole and 21% with controls). Secondary outcomes too were not different between the two groups. However the incidence of invasive candidiasis was lower in the fluconazole group (3%) versus controls (9%).