A review article summarizes the available evidence on nasal CPAP and discusses implications for developing countries. Key points of this review are: In preterm infants less than 28 weeks gestation whose mothers have received antenatal steroids, CPAP is the preferred method of stabilization in the delivery room (as opposed to prophylactic intubation and surfactant administration). In preterm infants who are mechanically ventilated, extubation to CPAP is superior to extubation to oxygen hood. Current evidence does not identify the optimal level of pressure to use during CPAP. When taking an infant off CPAP, there is no advantage to giving periods of time-off prior to stopping (i.e. weaning and stopping is the preferred method based on available evidence). The ideal CPAP device and interface is currently unknown.