Caffeine for apnea of prematurity: five-year outcomes

Does caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcome? In a study reporting the five-year follow up results of the randomized placebo-controlled Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) trial in babies 500 – 1250 grams, the combined outcome of death or disability was not significantly different between the caffeine (21%) and placebo (25%) groups. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in the rates of death, motor impairment, cognitive impairment, behavior problems, poor general health, deafness, and blindness.